[PDF]    http://dx.doi.org/10.3952/lithjphys.48308

Open access article / Atviros prieigos straipsnis

Lith. J. Phys. 48, 265–273 (2008)

V. Ulevičiusa, D. Pečiulytėb, K. Plauškaitėa, and N. Špirkauskaitėa
aInstitute of Physics, Savanorių 231, LT-02300 Vilnius, Lithuania
E-mail: ulevicv@ktl.mii.lt
bInstitute of Botany, Žaliųjų ežerų 49, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lithuania

Received 30 July 2008; accepted 19 September 2008

The influence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on fungi Aspergillus niger Tiegh. isolate OG168, Paecilomyces puntonii (Vuill.) Nann. isolate OG68, and Penicillium expansum Link isolate PO88 was studied under laboratory conditions. A test system was developed for this study. An aerosol chamber provided a dust-free space of 1.5 m3. The source of ultraviolet rays was an UV lamp (DPT 220, 240–320 nm, 15 W). Fungal propagules were injected into the UV exposed chamber space from an external bioaerosol generator. Aerosols from the aerosol chamber after irradiation to UV were sampled into an impinger AGI-30 and measured with the optical aerosol spectrometer LAS-15M (Institute of Physics, Lithuania). The changes in fungi survival caused by exposure to UV radiation were evaluated by determining their relative recovery. The laboratory study indicated that the fungal propagules responded to UV radiation distinctively. P. puntonii propagules were injured without possibility to repair. On the contrary, P. expansum propagules repaired after a long enough exposure to UV radiation, but this ability was limited. The stressed A. niger propagules recovered after the 80 min exposure to UV radiation and the relative recovery reached a plateau. The mutagenic effects of UV light on tested fungi have shown that frequent occurrence of different morphological mutants was detected after the 30 min exposure of conidia. The mean geometrical diameter of fungal propagules exposed to UV irradiation in the aerosol chamber was in the range of 2.5 to 2.8 μm.
Keywords: aerosol chamber, fungal propagules, relative recovery, mutation, UV radiation
PACS: 92.60.Mt, 92.20.Bk, 87.19.xg

V. Ulevičiusa, D. Pečiulytėb, K. Plauškaitėa, N. Špirkauskaitėa
aFizikos institutas, Vilnius, Lietuva
bBotanikos institutas, Vilnius, Lietuva

Tirtas ultravioletinės (UV) spinduliuotės poveikis Aspergillus niger Tiegh (OG168), Paecilomyces puntonii (Vuill.) Nann. (OG68) ir Penicillium expansum Link (PO88) mikromicetų pradams, panaudojus aerozolio technologiją. Tyrimai atlikti sukonstruotoje eksperimentinėje 1,5 m3 aerozolio kameroje. Kamera buvo užpildoma mikromicetų pradais, generuojamais bioaerozolių generatoriumi. Jie buvo veikiami skirtingos trukmės (iki 160 min) ultravioletine spinduliuote. Bandiniai iš kameros rinkti į sterilų vandenį, kur 15 min intervalais optiniu aerozolio spektrometru LAS-15m (Fizikos institutas) matuota mikromicetų pradų koncentracija ir dydžių pasiskirstymas. Mikromicetams auginti buvo naudota agarizuota alaus misa. Mikromicetai auginti 7 dienas tamsoje, 25 C temperatūroje. Mikromicetų pradų gyvybingumas buvo vertinamas pagal koncentracijų, išmatuotų aerozolio spektrometru vandens terpėje, santykį. Nustatyta, kad P. puntonii pradų pažaidos negrįžtamos: dauguma jų žuvo paveikus UV spinduliuote 20 min. P. expansum pradų gyvybingumas pradžioje sumažėjo, bet po 60 min poveikio UV spinduliuote pradėjo didėti, o po 120 min – vėl mažėti. Šių mikromicetų pradų apsauginiai mechanizmai nuo UV spinduliuotės buvo riboti. Po 80 min UV spinduliuotės poveikio A. niger pradams jų gyvybingumas pradėjo didėti ir vėliau mažai kito. A. niger pradų apsauginiai mechanizmai nuo UV spinduliuotės buvo išvystyti geriausiai, lyginant juos su P. expansum ir P. puntonii. Daugiausia mikromicetų pradų mutacijų nustatyta paveikus UV spinduliuote 30 min P. puntonii. Eksperimentinėje aerozolio kameroje veikiamų UV spinduliuote mikromicetų pradų vidutinis geometrinis skersmuo buvo nuo 2,2 iki 2,8 μm.

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