[PDF]    http://dx.doi.org/10.3952/lithjphys.49201

Open access article / Atviros prieigos straipsnis

Lith. J. Phys. 49, 237–246 (2009)

V. Ulevičius, S. Byčenkienė, and K. Senuta
Institute of Physics, Savanorių 231, LT-02300 Vilnius, Lithuania
E-mail: ulevicv@ktl.mii.lt

Received 8 January 2009; accepted 19 March 2009

This paper presents the deposition variation of sulphur and nitrogen compounds and the exceedance of their critical loads for terrestrial ecosystems. The analysis is based on a steady-state approach, involving the comparison of deposition fluxes with critical loads to identify areas where critical loads are exceeded. The critical load concept is widely used as a tool for developing emission control policies in Europe. Critical loads for acidity, nitrogen, and sulphur have been calculated for Lithuania as a signatory country of the Convention of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. In addition, the comparison of sulphur deposition with critical loads for eutrophication yielded an exceedance in southern, southeastern, southwestern, and central parts of Lithuanian ecosystems. Deposition of sulphur as well as oxidized and reduced nitrogen from anthropogenic sources remains low over the central and some northern part of the country but are signicant in eastern areas.
Keywords: nitrogen, sulphur, critical loads, deposition, ecosystems, mass balance method
PACS: 91.62.Mn, 92.20.jp

V. Ulevičius, S. Byčenkienė, and K. Senuta
Fizikos institutas, Vilnius, Lietuva

Pateikta kiekybinė sieros ir azoto junginių kritinių apkrovų Lietuvos ekosistemoms analizė. Įvertinant azoto junginių kritines apkrovas miškų ekosistemoms naudotas masės balanso metodas, leidžiantis nustatyti rajonus, kur tos apkrovos yra viršytos. Kritinių apkrovų koncepcija yra plačiai naudojama, ieškant palankaus susitarimo tarp gamtosaugininkų ir valdžios institucijų, priimančių sprendimus dėl teršalų emisijos apribojimų. Teršalų srautų į ekosistemas kiekis bei kritinių apkrovų Lietuvoje dydis nustatytas vadovaujantis Tolimųjų tarpvalstybinių oro teršalų pernašų konvencija. Apskaičiuotas oksiduotos sieros kritinių apkrovų bei bendro nusėdimo srauto skirtumas, kurio neigiamos reikšmės atspindi apkrovų viršijimus. Rasta, kad jos yra viršijamos pietų, pietryčių, pietvakarių bei kai kuriuose šiauriniuose Lietuvos regionuose. Mažiausios oksiduotos sieros, oksiduoto ir redukuoto azoto kritinių apkrovų bei bendro nusėdimo srauto skirtumo vertės nustatytos centriniame ir kai kuriuose šiauriniuose Lietuvos regionuose.

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